ISSN 1683-8742

Volume 9 Number 1 January 2010

Education, Democracy and Opportunity

Fidel V. Ramos

Former President of the Republic of the Philippines (1992-1998)

Chairman of the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation [RPDEV]; and

Chairman of the Boao Forum for Asia [BFA]

Editor’s Note

The editorial board of the AIUB Journal of Business and Economics (AJBE) has always had the privilege of publishing important commentaries written by the former president of the Philippines, Fidel V. Ramos. In this issue of AJBE, he writes about his thoughts and views about the development of education and democracy and the opportunities that have been discovered as a result of such developments in the state of Qatar and the Philippines. For me, working with him in the International Association of University Presidents (IAUP) has been a complete educational experience; during our conversations in IAUP meetings, and also through other means of communication with him, I have realized that his vision of creating opportunities through the development of innovative strategies that foster education and democracy is intellectually as well as practically stimulating. While this particular commentary is primarily based on his experience in the World Innovation Summit for Education, the contents of this commentary is an outcome of his efforts in promoting and his dedication towards the campaign for developing the ideas of excellence in higher education. The editorial board of AJBE welcomes this commentary, and places it alongside with the top ranked scholarly contributions in this issue.

… Carmen Z Lamagna

Vice Chancellor of AIUB

Women Workers of Ready Made Garments (RMG) Sector in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study on Their Working Condition and Grievances

Anwar Hossain

American International University-Bangladesh [AIUB]

Md. Nahid Aktar

Atish Dipankar University of Science & Technology, Bangladesh


Readymade garments industry is the most important sector in the economy of Bangladesh. An unique feature of this sector is the huge number of women workers engaged in this industry. This paper is the outcome of an empirical study on the female workers of RMG sector. The study compares the data on the socio-economic background of the women workers drawn from large, middle and small factories. The socio-economic aspects of the female workers have been compared according to the classification of factories by number of employees and their responses to some of the problems faced by them on the job. The research findings surface many grievances among the female workers in terms of maltreatment, poor working conditions and meager and irregular payment of salaries and benefits specially in the smaller ones. The study also tracks the expenditure of the female workers in different house hold necessities and highlights their struggle for existence.

Leakage of Tax Revenues in Bangladesh under Direct Taxation: A Study of Factor Detection and Monetary-loss Estimation

AKM Matiur Rahman

American International University-Bangladesh [AIUB]

Akim M Rahman

The Ohio State University, USA

Sabera Yasmin

University of Dhaka, Bangladesh


Using statistical techniques, this study examines the reasons of tax-revenue outflows in Bangladesh under direct taxation. First, it identifies the factors of the leakage and then categories them in six groups: Tax Evasion (EV), Lack of Awareness (LA), Official Harassment (OH), Complexity of Tax Laws (CL), Lack of Social Benefit (LS) and Other Reasons (OR). It further estimates the amount of revenue outflows linking to taxpayers in six categories namely: Public Ltd Company, Private Ltd Company, Financial Institutions, Rental Company, Professional and Individuals. Based on multiple regression analysis where statistical findings are sensitive to the changes in the number of independent variables in the model, this study suggests that the EV, LA, OH, CL, LS and OR, in each category of taxpayers except the Financial Institution, are major factors. Moreover, this study shows that these factors have contributed significantly to the amount of revenue outflows in case of taxpayers: Private Ltd and Public Ltd. However, they have contributed partially to Rental, Professional and Individual groups of taxpayers. To address this mounting problem in Bangladesh, the study recommends two main forms of economic instruments: First: an introduction of laws that can ensure appropriate designed taxes & its strict implementation. Second: advancement of effective tax-administration, which can be achieved by establishing provisions in practice where the officials’ rationalities & abilities to maximize its effectiveness and accountabilities for the abuse of its authorities are valued.

Impact of Malls on Small Retailers

R. K. Srivastava

University of Mumbai, India


The research presented here builds a picture of the changing retail taking place in India. India is poised to become a retail power house. India has well over 12 million outlets of all sizes and styles. International retailing has great opportunity. When 50% of population is self employed in India and many of them are in retail trade retail boom impact has to be studied on small retailers.

Corporate Governance and Voluntary Information Disclosure: A Study of Listed Financial Companies in Bangladesh

Mohammad Shafiqul Islam

Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh

Chowdhury Abdullah Al – Hossienie

Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh

Chowdhury Abdullah Al – Baki

Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh


Corporate governance is a system by which companies are directed and controlled. This paper has tried to examine the actual corporate governance practices in the listed financial public limited companies by considering 30 disclosure items. A convenience sampling of 10 listed financial Companies has been taken for this purpose. To facilitate the analysis, a Corporate Governance Disclosure Index (CGDI) has been computed and a number of hypotheses have been tested. The mean and standard deviation of CGDI have been found to be 69.99 and 13.96 percent respectively. In this study, financial sector has been found to make more intensive corporate governance disclosure. Multiple regression result shows that corporate governance disclosure index is significantly influenced (at 10 percent level of significance) by log of net asset value, EPS, and the size of the board. Age and Stock Allotment are not found to have any significant impact on corporate governance disclosure.

Audit Committee Effectiveness: A Critical Literature Review

Md. Mohiuddin

Cardiff University, UK

Yusuf Karbhari

Cardiff University, UK


This paper develops a theoretical model on audit committee effectiveness after reviewing related previous studies. Corporate governance is believed as means of improving economic efficiency in a country. Corporate governance rules have economically significant impact on firm value. Due to separation of company’s management and ownership, there exists lack of trust between two groups and as a result agency problem emerges. Previous literature generally argue that inclusion of independent, knowledgeable and expert members and delegation of adequate authority make an audit committee effective which plays significant role in the areas of financial reporting, internal auditing, risk management, dealing with external auditor, and compliance issues. Academic literature suggests that audit committee effectiveness has significant positive impact in minimizing agency conflicts, protecting stakeholders’ interests and thus in maximizing firm’s overall value.

The moderating role of relationship marketing orientation (RMO) on market orientation (MO) and business performance linkage in service firm context

Jashim Khan

Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand

Sanjaya S. Gaur

Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand

Md. Farhad Ahmed

American International University - Bangladesh [AIUB]


This paper conceptualises the role of relationship marketing orientation (RMO) on market orientation (MO) and business performance linkage in the context of service sector. The paper argues that relationship marketing orientation (RMO) strengthens market orientation (MO) and business performance linkage among service firms. However, the exact nature and extent of these relationships needs to be further investigated.