ISSN 1683-8742

Volume 7 Number 2 August 2008

On the Global Credit Crunch and its Impact on Small Open Economies

Carmen Z. Lamagna

American International University-Bangladesh [AIUB]

Sheikh T. Selim 

Cardiff University, UK

The FTSE Global Islamic and the Risk Dilemma

Noor Hashim

A’ayan Arabia Holiding, Saudi Arabia


Risk typically represents investments’ double-edged sword. Quantifying the adequate amount of risk to be assumed could be difficult, especially when “too much risk could turn out to be too little.” Under Islamic finance, managing risk is even more challenging. On the one hand, assuming high levels of risk is not encouraged. On the other, Islamic screening rules restrict investment and consequently stimulate risk. This paper considers the above dilemma by examining the effect of adopting screening rules on stock indices risk. The study, conducted using monthly data from FTSE Global Islamic, tests the hypothesis that the Islamic index yields adequate returns for the level of risk undertaken. Results show that the Islamic index surpasses the socially responsible index in performance while operating in line with the market. This risk assessment result does not resolve the dilemma but assures the economic appropriateness of the procedures adopted in managing the Islamic index.

India’s Interest and Influence in Materializing the Trade Liberalization Process between the SAARC Countries

Abu Yousuf Md. Abdullah

University of Dhaka


South Asian economies are bound in the SAARC for the last 20 years. In this period, many agreements related to trade & commerce have been signed by the member nations for mutual benefit. Yet intra-regional trade continues to be minimal and does not exceed 2 percent of the region’s total trade. The article intends to analyze India’s position relative position amidst the SAARC countries in terms of trade possibilities. The study is aimed to reveal the advantages’ that India may get by and the influencing role that India can play in the realization of trade liberalization among the SAARC countries in light of trade theories. Thus, the article may facilitate the materialization of trade liberalizing agreements such as the SAFTA and even trigger the formulation of more trade liberalizing agreements that can help SAARC countries add to the momentum of their economic growth.

Operations of Bangladesh Housing Industry: An Uncertain Supply Chain Model

M Shahidul Islam

American International University-Bangladesh [AIUB]

Anwar Hossain

American International University-Bangladesh [AIUB]


This paper is a result of extensive research on the housing industry in Bangladesh and has been developed to identify its current status.. Basically this work has brought an insight on this industry encompassing its opportunities and barriers. The current demand of housing and its supply status are the principal findings of this work. The backward linkages and the supply chain of the industry have been looked into along with the sales trend for the past few years. The importance of performance of housing industry of Bangladesh is highlighted in order to draw the attention of the relevant stakeholders.

Social Innovation: Making Mobile Phone Work for the Poor

Khandoker Mahmudur Rahman

United International University, Bangladesh

Ruba Rummana

Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology, Bangladesh

Josinta Jinia

Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology, Bangladesh


The paper follows a case study approach to understand the dynamics of social innovation caused by the expansion of mobile phone services to third world countries. References are made to China, India, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Bangladesh. The secondary data used in this study spans over the years 2005-2007, whereas the primary survey was done during September-November, 2007 in Bangladesh. Data are analyzed to look at how this international experience of social innovation can be replicated and even be applied in greater dimension in other developing countries, as well as how the social impact can be sustained through better access to mobile phone services by looking at price-elasticity in Bangladesh. The paper argues that, technological innovation and expansion should not only improve the life of a few, but it should also be accessible to the poor, who would in turn, use this service for various income-generating purposes. For this to happen, the price of this service must be within the reach of the poor. The study finds that, the demand for mobile phone service to the poor is relatively price-elastic at upper price range, which supports our proposition that service-accessibility to poor will increase if price can be brought within the reach of them. This in turn, will magnify the social innovation impact on the poor.

Cause Related Marketing and Its Impact on the Purchasing Behavior of the Customers of Bangladesh: An Empirical Study

Mujahid Mohiuddin Babu

East West University

Md. Mohiuddin

University of Dhaka, Bangladesh


Marketing, now, not merely about only the market. The focal point is getting wider day by day. The companies are devising different schemes to contribute to societal development activities along with their attainment of corporate objectives. Cause related marketing is one of those tactics that enables the marketers to involve the customers directly into the process. This study tries to portray whether the customers purchasing behavior is influenced by such marketing program. The demographic variables have great influence on the purchasing decision making process of customer. Whether that is also being influenced by companies cause related marketing program is also explored here. The findings have showed that a customer is influenced by the companies’ cause related marketing programs while adopting a new brand or executing its purchase intension and the customers prefer to support generally health and life saving issues.

Real Estate Financing in Bangladesh: Problems, Programs, and Prospects

Md. Maksudur Rahman Sarker

American International University - Bangladesh [AIUB]

Mohammad Moniruzzaman Siddiquee

Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

Sheikh Feroze Rehan

Daffodil International University


Housing not only provides physical shelter but also have significant impact on the lives of the dwellers in terms of skills enhancement, income generation, increased security, health, self confidence and human dignity. Considerable research interest is attached to the question of how the acquisition of residential real estate has been financed. Bangladesh, like many other developing countries face an acute shortage of affordable housing both in the urban and rural areas. The main constraints in housing production are the unavailability and high cost of housing finance in relation to household incomes. The present housing finance system in Bangladesh is extremely small and highly segmented. Besides the state-owned BHBFC, other sources of housing finance currently available in Bangladesh are commercial banks, employee loans, life insurance policies, informal means (such as own savings, contributions from relatives, friends or employers, or short-term money-lenders), and housing co-operatives in the rural sector. Recently, private housing finance institutions (such as Delta-BRAC Housing Finance Corporation Ltd. and the National Housing Finance and Investment Ltd.) and non-bank financial institutions (such as IDLC of Bangladesh and MIDAS Financing Ltd.) have started to operate in this market targeting middle income households. Several microfinance institutions (such as Grameen Bank, Proshika, BRAC, and ASA) have extended non-collateralized credit to a small proportion of poor rural households. The performance of all the sources is not up to the mark as a whole. The government has to assess and decide on a number housing financing policies to improve the national housing situation, such as introducing a National Home Lending Program (NHLP); redirecting housing subsidies; increasing lending recovery rates by BHBFC; expanding the primary mortgage market; rehabilitating BHBFC; adopting a legal and regulatory reform program to safeguard lenders; enhancing lending in rural areas through village micro-credit schemes; and improving the climate for attracting finance to the housing sector.

Quality and TQM at Higher Education Institutions in the UK: Lessons from two UK Universities

Jashim Uddin Ahmed

North South University, Bangladesh


The paper covers all aspects of the Quality and Total Quality Management (TQM) programme of the higher education sector activities. The article begins by reviewing the literature on Quality and TQM. This paper will argue that the most effective means of Quality and the introduction of Total Quality Management in higher education sector. TQM programmes have been popularized for changing the culture and performance of higher education institutions. The objective of this article is to investigate the level of implication of Quality in the University of A and TQM in the University of B. The elements of Quality and Accountability are the major driving forces in academic institutions in the UK, and in this respect, TQM movement has exploded, capturing the attention of educators at all levels. Certainly, higher education embraces the concept of TQM as a set of tools for planning continuous improvement. In wider context, TQM have sought to achieve fundamental change in organizations.